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336                  HISTORY OF PERSIA                 CHAP.
banks. It is just for this reason that I leave the following
instructions, and I recommend them to the attention and constant
observation of my descendants.
I.  To keep Russia in a state for continual war, to hold the
soldier ever ready, and never give him rest except for the purpose
of recovering the finances of the country and the improvement
of the army.    To choose the most favourable moment for attack,
to follow up peace by war, and war by peace, in the interest,
aggrandisement, and growing prosperity of Russia.
II.  To entice by every means possible from the  cleverest
people of Europe officers during war and savants during peace,
in order to improve the Russians at the expense of other nations
without losing her own advantages.
III.  To take part on every occasion in the affairs and discus-
sions of Europe, whatever they may be, and especially in those
concerning   Germany,  who   as   our  most intimate   neighbour
interests us more directly.
IV.  To  divide   Poland,  and  keep  up  in that  kingdom a
constant disorder and  continual jealousy, gain   over  the other
Powers at the price of gold, influence the Polish assemblies and
corrupt them, so as to obtain an interest in the election of kings,
to name partisans and protect them as an excuse for the entry of
Muscovite troops there,  to  remain until the day arrives for a
permanent occupation.    If the neighbouring  Powers   put forth
difficulties,  tranquillize  them  for a  moment  by   dividing  the
country until we can retake as much of it as we have given up
to them.
V.  To take as much as we can of Sweden, and induce her
to attack us, in order that we may have the pretext for subjugat-
ing her.   For this purpose we must isolate Denmark from Sweden,
and favour the rivalry between these countries.
VI.  To choose always German princesses for our princes in
order to promote family alliances, reunite our interests, and so
bring Germany over to our cause for the augmentation of our
VII.  To give the preference to an alliance with England for
commerce, she being the Power which has the greatest need of
us for her marine, while at the same time she can be most useful
to us for the development of our own.    To exchange our wood
and products for her gold, and establish continual relations be-
tween us with regard to her merchandize, her sailors, and our
own, which will be in the interest of this country for navigation
and commerce.
VIII.  To extend ourselves without ceasing towards the North
along the Baltic, and also towards the South along the Black Sea.
IX.  To approach as near as possible to Constantinople and